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muscle twitching

Anesthesia often seeks to control muscle movement to facilitate surgery, whether through temporarily paralyzing muscles or returning normal function. Monitoring muscle activity is useful in the perioperative setting, primarily during recovery from a neuromuscular blockade after anesthesia. On the flip side, some patients may pose challenges due to having muscle twitching under anesthesia. To assess… Continue reading Muscle Twitching During Anesthesia


In the 1950s, the anesthetic halothane was coined the miracle anesthetic. The easy and rapid induction, quick recovery profile, and function as a moderate muscle relaxer made it the popular choice for anesthesiologists. Then, the hidden downsides were uncovered. It could lead to cardiovascular complications in the presence of adrenaline. Other patients experienced severe immune… Continue reading History of Enflurane

Surgery and anesthesia may pose risks to an unborn fetus. Some of this risk is medico-legal, however this risk is very low2. According to the American Society of Anesthesiology, only seven out of 10,500 claims in the Anesthesia Closed Claim database were regarding undiagnosed pregnancy prior to surgery.3 Much of this risk, however, is theoretical;… Continue reading Utility of Routine Preoperative Pregnancy Tests

A heart attack is a serious event that can have lasting implications for health even if successfully managed. A recent heart attack can increase a patient’s risk for other cardiovascular events, which is relevant for surgery, including non-cardiac surgery. Some patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery face the risk of experiencing adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial ischemia,… Continue reading Non-Cardiac Surgery after Heart Attack

Intraoperative bleeding

Intraoperative bleeding is a major complication during and after surgery that often results in increased morbidity and mortality. Steps can be taken preoperatively to identify patients at higher risk and facilitate appropriate preparation. However, the surgical and anesthesia teams must be ready to intervene if severe bleeding does occur in surgery patients.  Patients should be… Continue reading Management of Surgery Patients with Severe Bleeding 

The discovery and refinement of general anesthesia (GA) makes surgery and other invasive medical procedures more humane, predominantly through the induction of loss of consciousness and analgesia, or the loss of pain perception. However, it is not uncommon for patients to regain consciousness under GA and still experience pain relief. It is believed that low-dose… Continue reading Effect of Anesthesia in the Amygdala 

Melatonin is a chemical compound produced by the pineal gland in the brain. Often referred to as the “sleep hormone,” melatonin plays an important role in the circadian rhythm, the 24-hour cycle according to which the sleep and awake states are regulated. Melatonin synthesis increases at night, is inhibited by light,1 and is directly correlated… Continue reading Pain Relief from Melatonin 

Antibiotics are a crucial component of modern medicine. They can prevent or treat bacterial infection by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, which could otherwise cause health complications in people or even be fatal. Though antibiotics approved for clinical use are safe, many antibiotics have side effects and risks that patients should be aware… Continue reading Protecting Health While Taking Antibiotics 

Joint replacement, such as a total knee and total hip replacement, is one of the most frequently carried out elective operations. In most cases, joint replacement surgery relieves pain and helps patients live full, active lives. However, a small number of patients undergoing joint replacement—about 1%—may develop a postoperative infection. Treating infection after joint replacement requires… Continue reading Treating Infection After Joint Replacement 

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